Good practice and case studies
The following case studies represent good practice across a range of planning issues. It is important to note, however, that the planning landscape in the fields of sustainable energy and adaptation are evolving rapidly and each local authority has different priorities and resources.
Climate change mitigation and sustainable energy
The Energy Saving Trust's Publications and Case Studies section provides access to a wide range of publications, briefing notes and case studies on sustainable energy and transport. Go to the Publications for Local Authorities & Housing Associations drop-down menu and select a topic. Here are some of the case studies likely to be of most interest:
Milton Keynes Council began operating a carbon offset fund in 2006. Developers are required to pay into this fund if they do not meet the planning policy criteria outlined in the Policy D4 of the council's Replacement Local Plan. The fund is then used to finance low-carbon activities such as building-insulation programmes.
The London Borough of Merton was the first local authority to introduce a prescriptive renewable energy planning policy. Subsequently branded the ‘Merton Rule’, Policy PE13 (adopted in 2003) states that all new non-residential developments over 1000m2 in area will be required to generate at least 10% of their predicted energy requirements using a renewable source. Subsequent revisions cover developments and conversions irrespective of size, and the 10% requirement is now set in terms of carbon emissions savings rather than energy generation.
Daventry and South Northamptonshire councils issued a joint SPD in 2007 that uses the Code for Sustainable Homes as a mechanism for reducing carbon emissions from new developments. Developers are now required to achieve Code level 2 for residential developments of fewer than ten dwellings, and Code level 3 for residential developments of more than ten. New non-residential developments over 1000m2 must meet at least 10% of the predicted energy requirements with integrated renewables or contribute to a system of carbon off-setting in cases where these targets cannot be met.
Uttlesfield District Council’s Supplementary Planning Document (2005) on home extensions sets out a requirement for energy efficiency measures to be applied to existing buildings as a condition of planning consent for a home extension, or loft or garage conversion. A building surveyor will determine which measures (cavity wall insulation, loft insulation and energy efficient lighting etc) are practical and cost effective, and which cannot cost more than 10% of the total for the building project.
Climate change adaptation
There are several climate-change adaptation case studies and links to specific research for each key risk area under the following sub-sections of this website's policy objective page
Managing high temperatures
Managing flood risk
Managing water quality and availability
Managing ground conditions
For adaptation cases studies specific to the South West, see www.oursouthwest.com/climate/casestudies.htm
The climate change pages of the website of the Planning Advisory Service contain the practice guidance that supports PPS1, as well as links to other useful resources on climate change mitigation and adaptation for planners.
Likewise, the Environment Agency's planning pages contain guidance and case studies, split by region and category, on climate change adaptation. Under climate change adaptation, the land use planning case studies may be of particular interest. Other relevant pages are: Water cycle study guidance, Areas susceptible to flooding from surface water, Shoreline management plans, Development and flood risk, Catchment abstraction management strategies.
The UK Climate Impact Programme (UKCIP) have published a series of case studies that focus on the activity of local authorities who have undertaken a local climate impacts profile (LCLIP). Of particular interest is the Leicester case study which can be read alongside the city's core strategy.
A further rich vein of case studies - on all issues not just LCLIPs - can be found at UKCIP's Base for Research, Adaptation, Impacts and News ("The BRAIN is the route to all our knowledge.")
For guidance on the development of green infrastructure at a strategic and site-specific scale Natural England’s Green Infrastructure Guidance
The Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) is another good source of information. See particularly CABE's Green infrastructure in the North West case study and its Grey to Green campaign, with supporting good practice examples.
CABE's Sustainable Cities resource has been developed primarily for a local authority audience and provides expert advice for those "whose job is to make decisions about how to plan, design and manage towns and cities." The website is organised around 15 priority actions, including energy, waste, water, transport, green infrastructure and public space. Sustainable Cities refers to seven scales, which fit broadly with the spatial scales used in this toolkit. For specific information on each priority at a given scale click here
Adaptation Monitoring Case Studies
To help you understand the Local & Regional Adaptation Partnership Board published a report, Adapting to Climate Change: Local areas' action containing 27 case studies, 3 from each region under several adaptation themes. For those who want a short overview, a short summary of the case studies is included.the